Understanding Tyres! How to choose the right tyres for your next car

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Hello, Guys today I will talk about one of the most important parts of your car, tyres. Tyres are one of the most important parts of your car because without a good set of tyres, you cannot put the power down, nor you can get proper traction or handling. Their various types of tyres are high-profile, low-profile, all-season, summer, winter, and off-road tyres. In this article, we will talk about What are tyres? Types of Tyres? Tyre load and speed Index? and finally how to choose a tyre for your car.

What are Tyres?

Tyres are one of the important components of your car. A tyre is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel’s rim to transfer a vehicle’s load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface travelled over.

Tyres are made up of natural and synthetic rubber. The harder or the softer compound has an effect on fuel efficiency but it is a negligible difference. The air pressure will play a role in grip, mileage and comfort. If you have higher air pressure on your tyre, there will be less rolling resistance and higher fuel efficiency, but you might lose grip in bad patches or wet surfaces, also the ride will be bumpy and hard. But if you have lower air pressure, you will have a lower fuel efficiency, but you might have a decent grip over bad patches of road and wet surfaces, and your ride would be soft and squishy.

That is why it is advised to have the right air pressure to have the best fuel efficiency, comfort and grip. Though you can change it according to your driving needs. Like for example in the off-road condition, you need to reduce your air pressure, and on-road driving needs the correct air pressure.

How Tyres are built and their parts?

I will tell you the parts included in the tyres but watch the below video to see how a tyre is built.

Beads in tyres - how to choose a tyre for your car

Beads

Beads are made of high-strength steel coated in rubber. It creates an airtight seal between your tyre and the rim of the wheel.

Belts

Belts are placed around the tyres to reinforce strength and provide rigidity. These are made of woven sheets of steel wires that are coated in rubber.

belts in tyres - how to choose a tyre for your car
Ply in tyres - how to choose a tyre for your car

Ply

Ply is the layers of fabric that make up your tyre’s skeleton and are typically made of fibre cord that is woven together and coated with rubber. The flexibility and strength of your tyre are because of the ply.

Sidewall

It is the area where you find your tyre manufacturer information, and also your tyre details (size, aspect ratio etc). It is an area of extra-thick rubber that runs from the bead to the tread and gives your tyre its lateral stability.

Sidewall in tyres - how to choose a tyre for your car
Groove and Sipe in tyres - how to choose a tyre for your car

Sipe and Groove

The tread blocks are separated by the deep grooves that allow your tyre to disperse water, snow and mud. Sipes are the smaller grooves or cuts made in the tread blocks themselves that give extra grip, which is especially important in a tyre made for snow and ice.

Shoulder

It is one of the most important components of your tyre. It is a small bevelled edge where the tread meets the sidewall. Its design and construction play an important role in how your tyre helps you take corners.

Shoulder in tyres - how to choose a tyre for your car
Treads in tyres - how to choose a tyre for your car

Treads

This is the area of your tyre where the rubber meets the road. The tread provides both cushioning and grip, and its design and compound determine many of your tyre’s most important performance features.


Watch this video to understand how a tyre is made

Courtesy: Engineering Explained

Tyres Guide (Load and speed Index)

Tyre Size guide

You can find the tyre details on the sidewall. Mostly it is in this format 145/80 R12 74T. Where 145 is the width of the tyre (A in the left figure), and 80 is the aspect ratio or profile (sidewall thickness B in the left figure). R stands for radial tyres, and 12 is the diameter of your rim (C in the figure). 74 is the load index that determines how much load a single tyre can bear, and T is the Speed limit that your tyre can resist. Check the list below.

Understanding the markings on the sidewall of a tyre

Sidewall marking

Meaning

Description

145

Width

Measured in millimetres.

80

Aspect ratio

The height of the sidewall is a percentage of its width. Here 80% of the 145mm

R

Construction type

Actually redundant – ‘R’ stands for ‘Radial’, as the majority of modern tyres are.

12

Wheel rim diameter

Measured in inches, the diameter of the rim of the wheel has been designed to fit. Measured bead shoulder to bead shoulder.

74

Load Index

A load index of 74 corresponds to 375 kg. For a full index see the image below.

T

Speed rating

A second index for speed ratings. ‘T’ rated tyres can be used up to 190 kmph.

Tyre Load Index

Load IndexLoad in Kg per TyreLoad IndexLoad in Kg per TyreLoad IndexLoad in Kg per TyreLoad IndexLoad in Kg per TyreLoad IndexLoad in Kg per TyreLoad IndexLoad in Kg per Tyre
501907033590600110106013019001503350
511957134591615111109013119501513450
522007235592630112112013220001523550
532067336593650113115013320601533650
542127437594670114118013421201543750
552187538795690115121513521801553875
562247640096710116125013622401564000
572307741297730117128513723001574125
582367842598750118132013823601584250
592437943799775119136013924301594375
6025080450100800120140014025001604500
6125781462101825121145014125751614625
6226582475102850122150014226501624750
6327283487103875123155014327251634875
6428084500104900124160014428001645000
6529085515105925125165014529001655150
6630086530106950126170014630001665300
6730787545107975127175014730751675450
68315885601081000128180014831501685600
69325895801091030129185014932501695800

Tyre Speed Index

Speed RatingKM/Hour
J100
K110
L120
M130
N140
P150
Q160
R170
S180
T190
U200
H210
V240
W270
Y300
Z240+

Types of Tyres

high performance tyre

High-Performance

High-performance tyres give you more rubber in contact with the road to boost traction. Rainwater grooves are shallower and thus make your car harder to control in wet weather. They are made of softer compounds which helps in better traction. High-performance tyres also wear quickly.

Summer

These are specifically designed for optimal performance in summer conditions. They will make steering quick and accurate – especially during hard cornering. The compounds used in these tyres are a sticker. They offer fantastic grip and durability in both wet and dry conditions, thanks to a good balance of water-channelling grooves and road-hugging rubber.

summer tyre
winter tyres

Winter

Winter tyres provide greater traction through softer compounds and greater tread depth and help driving in snow, ice and even rain substantially easier. Such examples wear out quickly in warm weather and therefore are only useful for some months of the year.

All-Season

An all-season tire offers a balance of capabilities, providing acceptable performance in wet and dry conditions, as well as traction in snow. These tyres use compounds that provide longer tread life than summer tyres. It is the most used tyre, and a wide variety of vehicles from economy cars to sedans to mini-vans to pickup trucks use all-season tyres. They tend to provide ride comfort, handling, and other performance attributes suitable for most drivers.

all-season-tyre
all terrain tyres

All-Terrain

All-terrain is usually fitted to SUVs, these increase tread spacing to help channel mud out of the tyre. Additionally, the sidewall is strengthened to prevent punctures.

Low profile

Low-profile tyres give your car a better look. Greatly improved levels of handling and grip, especially in the dry. Better brakes because of more contact patch that provides greater traction than a conventional tyre. Low-profile tyres will benefit your car’s cornering characteristics by being able to handle greater cornering forces (CF).

The downside of Low profile tyres in Indian condition is they will reduce your tyres life. Also increase the risk of rim damage, since these tyres have a smaller air cushion to work with to absorb harsh impacts from our pothole-ridden roads. Road noise also increases with these tyres because of the larger contact patch, and the ride of your car can become much stiffer. In wet conditions car losses traction. also have a lower fuel efficiency

low-profile-tyre

How to Choose the Best tyre for your car?

First of all, always select the tyre which is made for your car. I have seen some people using wide tyres which gives your car a better road presence. But these wide tyres reduce your car’s performance and mileage cause they were not built for your car.

Second always buy a trusted brand do not go for cheap tyres cause they will affect your car. My recommendation is Michelin, Bridgestone, Continental and Apollo.

Selecting the right types of tyres is important. All-season tyres are good for the daily driving situation. In India we can also go for summer tyres in some places cause the winter in India is not that extreme and summer tyres do well in wet conditions also.

Also as mentioned above do not go for low-profile tyres, all Indian roads are not suitable for low-profile tyres.

So I guess by now you know how to check the dimension of your tyres, and you would have got some idea of how to buy a new set of tyres. Also while modifying your car first thing you should be replacing is your tyres, cause better tyres give you a better grip and good corning. Which helps increase the overall performance of your car.

Welcome to your how to choose a tyre for your car

Do you understand tyres better now?

Will tyre be your next upgrade on your tyre?

Which tyre would you choose?

About Post Author

Girish

Hello Guys I am a website developer by profession but is always keen on learning new things. I have been investing in Mutual funds, stock market for the past few years because of which I have gained good knowledge. I started my entrepreneur journey in 2019 which lead me to learn more things as I am moving forward. I always love to share whatever I learn. Always had a craze for cars from my childhood, which inspired me to start this website.
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Girish

Hello Guys I am a website developer by profession but is always keen on learning new things. I have been investing in Mutual funds, stock market for the past few years because of which I have gained good knowledge. I started my entrepreneur journey in 2019 which lead me to learn more things as I am moving forward. I always love to share whatever I learn. Always had a craze for cars from my childhood, which inspired me to start this website.

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